Thursday, July 19, 2012

Leeds castle

Leeds Castle - a kind of military fortification in the XIV. It arose in those troubled years, when the onslaught of the Crusaders in the Belarusian and Lithuanian lands reached a maximum strength. Together with the Lithuanians and Ukrainians population of Belarus bravely fought with the enemy. Especially attracted invaders Ponemanya rich land.

To close the knights of the road into the land of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Prince Gediminas in 1323 ordered to lay a stone castle in Lida. The new combat outpost prinemanskih land built about five years.

Withstand the onslaught of the Crusaders could then only those fortifications, which take account of the siege tactics of the troops, armed with high-grade military equipment because of time. In the XII-XIV century. in Northern Europe and Baltic countries has spread the special type of lock-Castel. The basis of their power were high stone walls in the form of a quadrangle, which was placed under the protection of the garrison and lived. Especially a lot of Castel built the Livonian Knights in the occupied lands of the Baltic states. Small in size, these fortifications were invaders database, point of collection of tribute from conquered peoples, the place of markets.

Architects of Leeds Castle, based on the type of chivalry Castel, creatively approached the solving of complex problems. On the basis of local building traditions, they have created a powerful structure that is suitable for reliable protection. Within its walls is now able to find shelter residents, not only the city but also the neighboring villages.

The builders used the terrain well, choosing to lock the swampy lowlands, where a river flowed into the river Kamenka Lideyu. On an artificial island, pour out of the sand and gravel, and was erected this building. The walls of the castle of Leeds in terms reminiscent of a trapezoid, a large base of which looks to the north, to where most threatening danger of war. Prior to the northern wall (the length of about 93.5 m) lay deep and broad moat, which is apparently filled with water. North wall (length 80 m) covered marshy banks and Lidei heaters. The length of the western and eastern walls - respectively 84 and 83.5 m

Near the northeast corner of the castle walls cut through the thickness of the eastern two inputs. Smaller gate ("fortka") with a width of 2.5 m and the passage of a height of 3 m had a lancet arch, lined with brick bolypemernym. The second (approximately 4.5 m wide and about 6 m in height) Arched ended.

Smaller gates were like "black" everyday entrance. Large well opened only for the solemn entry of the Prince or noble guests.

In the south wall of the castle, at an altitude of about 2 m from the ground, was a semicircular opening height of 3.9 m and a width of about 2 m seems that it was an escape route for the garrison at critical moments in defense.

The southern wall is also interesting that there remain to this day the ancient battlements. They are tubeless and in terms of the shape of trapezoids have addressed a broad base inside the castle courtyard. At the same height loopholes have different widths and three of type were alternated on the wall. The loopholes were intended to be fired from bows and crossbows, and later - from handguns. Along the perimeter of the castle walls, below the battlements, there was a wooden gallery - the platform ("vulitsa"), arranged on the cantilever beams. Rose to the platform with a handrail on the stairs, which were located in the northwest and southeast corners of the castle.

Battle gallery covered with reinforced roof, which had a ramp to the side yard. Simultaneously with the walls in the south-west corner tower of the castle was built in the plan is close to the square of the size 11,3 X11, 3 m thickness of its walls reached a height of 3 m, was apparently much higher than the 12-meter high castle walls.

There is evidence that it is in this tower was the Orthodox Church of St. George, here made by the city in 1533

The second tower was located on a diagonal from the first, in the north-east corner of the courtyard. It was built later, probably in the 80 years of the XIV century. or at the turn of the XIV and XV centuries. when everywhere in Belarus and Lithuania improved defenses for a decisive rebuff to the Crusaders. Plan Lida second tower - a versatile skewed rectangle the size of 12X12, 5X12, 3X12, 15 m

Archaeological and written sources indicate that on all floors were apartments and rooms: on the ground, covered kripichnym vault, a prison, above - and the court file. Premises occupied the upper floors. Stairway to lift situated in the wall.

Accommodation Castle on the swampy lowlands largely removed the problem of water supply. In the course of archaeological excavations in the castle courtyard found several medieval pits. Considerable importance was the large pond on the Lidee and Kamenka, who closed the direct approaches from the east and southeast sides.

Over the centuries of its existence and its Lida Castle neodnazhdy repulsed the attacks of enemies. After the death of Gediminas, when Lida became the capital of Prince Olgerd inheritance, and then his son Jogaila, between the princes began a long feud over the throne. This discord used by crusaders. In 1384, after a long siege and storming of the castle they captured. In December of 1392 units of knights, led by Commander Ian Rumpengaymom, Konrad Liechtenstein and their ally Duke Vytautas crossed near the town of Alytus through the Neman and fettered by frost marshes came to the walls of the castle Lead-ray. Together with them, look for happiness robber dragged and English knights, who led the young Earl of Northumberland PA.

The enemy is "lit Pidzamche" and robbing the city, laid siege to the castle. Prince Dmitry Koribut, who led his defense was strong enough, but, frightened by the knights, decided to leave the castle. Waiting until the night he went to the garrison to the side Novogrudok. Knights got a large number of weapons and ammunition.

In winter 1394 the Crusaders attacked again on the Lido. And again on the march was attended by English knights led by the Earl of Bedford, as well as the French squad. But this time, the invaders could not profit from anything: the people themselves burned their homes and locked in the castle, bravely repulsed all enemy assaults. From 1396 to 1399 he lived at Leeds Castle expelled from the Golden Horde Khan Toqtamish: Duke Vytautas gave him refuge there, hoping to help him regain the throne, and then use Tokhtamysh in the fight against Muscovy. However, at the Battle of Vytautas Vorskla militia troops were killed loser rival Khan.

August 5, 1406 Lida appeared under the walls of Smolensk Prince George teams Svyatoslavovich. He went to rescue his family from captivity, which a year earlier Vytautas polonium, capturing Smolensk. After several unsuccessful assaults lifted the siege of Smolensk. Do not succumb to the castle and the prince Svidrigajlo (1433g.), who waged a long war with Zigimont.

From 1434 to 1443 the castle became a haven for another exiled Khan Devlet-Hajji Giray. However, his fate was happier than Tokhtamysh: through the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, he became Khan of the Tatars Perekop.

After a long lull in the war in 1506 came under the walls of one of the pens Lida Crimean Tatars, but the risk to storm the castle, he did not dare.

Lida consisted of Medieval castle, the prince's court, the city proper with Pidzamche and Districts. Prince's court, or the castle farm, as it is often called in the XVIII century., Was placed over the little river Kamenka, in the north-west of the castle. Beside him was a mill, distillery, and various other farm buildings.

"The Place" was on the north of the castle. Its historic center was considered the market, which runs a total of four streets: Wilensky - in the direction of Vilna, the Castle - the castle, Kamensky - to Kamenka and further along the road to Vasilishki and Ostrin and Curve Street, which connected Kamensky street to the market. The district at that time was small - only a few dozen huts. His defenses town Lida did not.

During the long Russian-Polish war of the mid-XVII century. stone walls and towers of the castle of Leeds have felt the full force of the then recent siege equipment. After a long siege and shelling in the summer of 1659 30000th army commanders Khovansky Nikita took the castle by storm. Badly damaged, he was completely destroyed in the 1702g. When one of the Swedish troops blew his tower. While the strategic importance the castle had been. A period of desolation and destruction of the old building, which was last used as intended rebel detachment T. Kosciuszko in 1794

At the end of the XIX century. enterprising local businessmen began to break down castle walls and let the brick and stone for sale. However, after strong protests by Lida antiquarian managed to stop the vandalism.

At the beginning of this century, the Imperial Archaeological Commission has allocated 946 rubles. to carry out conservation work on the Leeds Castle, but made it a bit: the lock part measurement, zafotografirova-tower and a wall and dismantled unsafe place of masonry.

In the 20 years of conservation work carried out partial Polish restorers. In the 80 years of restoration of the BSSR Ministry of Culture restored the completion of the walls and the north-east tower, which will house the Museum of the city of Lida.

Saturday, July 14, 2012

Golshany castle

Halšany can not be compared with any of the Belarusian borough. This little world is completely saturated with the legends, became the inspiration for the creation of Vladimir Korotkevich. His famous historical novel, detective story "The Black Castle Olshansky," translated into several languages, spread the mysterious glory of Golshan the world.
The village stands at the crossroads of Novogrudok on Oshmyany and Smorgon. Reason Golshan associated with the legendary Golshey and referred to 1280. According to the "Chronicle Byhovtsa", "... a fourth brother, Grand Duke Narimunda, Golsha, crossed the river and found Viliyu beautiful hill between the mountains and created the city, and called his name Halšany."

The descendants were called princes Golshi Golshanskaya. Rod was an influential and rich. Signatures Golshanskaya were among the first on the most important diplomatic acts of the time. Males of this family held senior government positions, the women visited the grand-ducal and royal thrones.

Golshanskaya owned these places from the XIII to the XVI century. By the middle of the XVI century, they kind of faded away. His last representative of Princess Elena Golshanskaya in 1525 she married Paul Sapieha and brought a dowry of his ancestral estate. After a generation of their grandson - Paul Stefan Sapieha - rebuilt the castle, giving it unprecedented grandeur.
From love to death ...
The history of the old castle keeps Golshanskaya tragic love story. Once upon a time rootless young man Gremislav Valyuzhinich illustrious princess fell in love with Hanna-Gordislavu Golshanskaya. The girl reciprocated, but their secret meetings knew the princess's father - a proud and vengeful tycoon.
The foundations of the Middle Ages to comply strictly with generic prescribing honor. And a cruel father ordered immure the boy in one of the five-foot thickness of the walls of the castle. From then until the present day through the galleries and cellars of the castle roams the sad shadow of the Black Monk (so nicknamed him the locals), bringing terror to the bystanders.

According to witnesses (and there are, incidentally, quite a few), the ghost appears regularly in the moonlight near the ruined castle walls, protecting them from intruders.

It is known that about 10 years ago, a teacher of one of the schools promised to release inmates early for the holidays, if they bring for the construction of 80 bricks. Without thinking, the students went to Golshany lock. In one of the most diligent collector of brick arch collapsed. Quite a young man died. You say no mystery - just a coincidence? Who knows ...

Residence tycoon
It is difficult to determine which style was built Golshany lock. Some researchers believe - it was baroque, others - are features of the Netherlands Renaissance. At one time he was considered one of the luxurious and magnificent.
In planning the building was a closed quadrangle, which stood at the corners of hexagonal tower. Used in the construction of the Dutch system of ramparts and moats wide.

It was a rich magnate residence with ceremonial halls, wide staircases, large windows. Under the buildings have survived the vast vaulted cellars (now mostly filled up).

The castle, built by Paul Stefan Sapieha in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century, the glittering unthinkable luxury, ceilings and fireplaces with stucco, decorated with rich tapestry walls, exquisite furniture, fine glassware, the best weapon. The windows that went to the castle courtyard, decorated with stained-glass windows of thick glass. The floors were lined with expensive rare mosaics.

The interior is rich murals. All this made it possible to call this Golshany Castle "stone flower".

It lived in a never-ending string of holiday: balls and banquets - all happening on an unprecedented scale. But the habit of living in splendor and luxury - can not afford, which is inherited nephews Paul Sapieha, ended in failure. The debts were repaid only the guys section Golshan among creditors.

Local "Bluebeard"
The identity of the Paul Stefan Sapieha very attracted historians and researchers. This man was a close friend of King Stefan Batory Foundation, participated in many military campaigns of the late XVI - early XVII century. When King Sigismund III Base Paul Stefan did a dizzy political career, becoming the podkantsleraVelikogo Duchy of Lithuania.
In contrast to the public, in private life to Paul Stefan less lucky. It is known that he had the nickname of a local "Bluebeard." However, this was nothing more than conjecture. In fact, the three wives of Paul Stephen - Khaletskaya, Veselin Alzhbeta, Catherine Oslavskaya died early, and the tycoon had no choice as to marry again. Only the last, the fourth wife - Sophia Danilovich - managed to survive her husband, burying him in a tomb in the cathedral of the Franciscans.

Fate did not give an heir to Paul Stephen, from his marriage to Alzhbetoy Veselin he had three daughters. The illustrious magnate grieved: who after his death, his estate will go to? And the fears have not been in vain. Of the three daughters, two - Eudoxia and Theophilus - became nuns. The youngest, Christina, married John Chodkiewicz. And so it happened that after the death of Stephen Paul Golshanskaya estate was divided and went in debt.

Historians consider: Golshany Castle, once the most beautiful in Belarus, has turned into ruins only because Sapieha left no heir, for whom this place would be a generic socket.

Destroyers: War and the people
Swept through our land of the war affected the Halšany. During the Northern War the castle damaged the Swedish artillery. And since the nineteenth century, for it begins an era of decline.
After the uprising in 1863 the Russian government gave the castle to his compatriot Gorbaneva. The new owner of the estate ordered, like a vandal - decided to disassemble the twin towers of bricks for building houses. They were strong, were blown up because ...

Against the background of the legend sounds almost blasphemous story about red commander of the detachment which in 1939 entered the town. In search of sleep, he was brought to the castle, recently abandoned owners. But the commander, saying: "I can not let the fuck up this beauty," - the squadron deployed to sleep in the open field.

How reliable this story, now we can only guess. Just know that other Bolsheviks were not as connoisseurs of beauty - in Soviet times, the castle is literally dismantled brick by brick to build a pigsty, and the local House of Culture.

The museum under the sky
Overgrown shrubs with the collapse of the arches of the ruins and dungeons poluzasypannymi still keep its former grandeur and beauty, frightening and bleak in the thick darkness. To this day partially retained two corner towers, the north-eastern and north-western building of the Palace. In contrast seen entering the ruins of the chapel, originally walled in the opposite case.
Today ... all over the world extremely popular with the idea of ​​creating ecomuseums - open-air museums, where preserved or recreated natural historical environment. In this sense, Halšany - the ideal "point" to reflect the traditions of the Belarusian town. Here, in a small area centered set of objects, interesting from a historical, architectural and tourist points of view: the castle, church, monastery, church, chapel, castle, stalls, residential buildings, office building municipality, a water mill.

One of the big pluses Golshan - lack of artificiality, the artificiality, so prominent in the created almost from scratch Skansen - an open-air museums. Halšany - lively town that has preserved its unique flavor.

Unfortunately, there is a threat of loss of a rare ensemble. Several years ago, collapsed and was demolished a brick wall of a castle. Concern and the complexity of conducting tours of the castle in its present condition. And there are many tourists here. On Saturday and Sunday coming up to ten buses per day.

Evening falls on ... Halšany, red walls of the castle are mysterious black. His long history of almost four centuries lies in ruins: heaps of shattered bricks, windows gaping empty eye sockets, a miracle in the air congealed semi-circular arch, ready to collapse at any moment.

New Castle in Grodno

Some argue that the very place to build a royal residence was badly chosen. Here, where the so-called Middle Ages was located The lower castle was a betrayal, which resulted in hiding in the castle were destroyed by the Crusaders locust. According to legend, before his agonizing death tribal leader cursed the traitor, and along with the very place where he found for himself eternal rest.

Not the best time was chosen for the construction of the castle. The country experienced a deep crisis due to the War of Polish Succession. But this did not prevent ascended the throne in 1734 Augustus III, a well-known passion for luxury and art, to give the order to build his summer residence. By the way, the monarch was spending huge sums on the purchase of paintings by famous museums, what brought the country to a deep economic crisis. Just over four years for these needs has been spent 88,000 thaler. The very same construction dragged on for 17 years, during which the project changed three times, the king.

When at last the royal palace was built, bad luck has not ceased to persecute the people associated with it. The author of the main project Peppelman M. died at the beginning of construction. I saw his creation in its final form and his son Charles, who guided the construction. I. Yauh, replaced him in office, he died a few years after the completion of New Castle.

 Historians say that the King August III did not like to come to Grodno, Warsaw, even thought the province. Therefore, the palace was empty for a long time, gradually falling into disrepair.

It is associated with the New Castle, another tragic page in the history of the country - the last Sejm of the Commonwealth. The palace on the night of 23 to 24 September 1793 passed the so-called "Silent meeting" the Sejm, after a silence which had agreed to a second partition of the country. Perturbed occurring headed Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Ironically, the leadership of the uprising in the ON is in session in New Castle, it is October 9, 1794 Tadeusz Kosciuszko falls under Maciejowice, where he was severely wounded and fell into Russian captivity.

Rarely visited our city and the last monarch of Stanislaw Poniatowski. It is in New Castle November 25, 1795, he signed an act of abdication, which put an end to the history of the Commonwealth. After that, the former king has long lived in the castle under the watchful eye until it went under the decree of Paul I in St. Petersburg, where he died a year later. It is known that during the uprising of 1831 in some areas of the palace kept prisoners before their exile in Siberia.

During the First World War in New Castle housed a hospital. Not a hundred soldiers came under its arches. As a military hospital in the castle continued to be used in the interwar years.

Apparently, as a warning to the architects installed at the entrance gate sculptures of mythical creatures. By the way, later on these gates have been installed in the palace in Bialystok. The well-known local historian and archaeologist Josef Yadkovsky thought this sculpture of women lyudoedok that night turned into a lioness and ate their children. Only one boy, sitting on the shoulders of predator was able to escape from death.

Old Castle in Grodno

Old Castle in Grodno, the first fortification built by the Russian princes in the XI century. The castle is situated on a high and steep hill on the right bank of the Neman River at the confluence of a river Gorodnichanka. Castle was built as a wooden fortress on which virtually nothing is left. Hrodna Old Castle was a lure for all kinds of invaders - after all, he protected the wealthy city. In the XIII century castle built strong stone tower, very similar to Kamenetsky Vezu. But Grodno tower was dismantled during the next adjustment. Once in the XIII century Grodno became a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the castle became the target of numerous attacks by the Crusaders. Crusaders stormed the fortress of Mazovia and the Teutonic Order in 1284, 1296, 1305, 1306 and 1311, respectively. The knights, having collected an army from all over Europe in February - March 1364 and tried unsuccessfully to acquire the lock. In 1391 the castle became one of the principal residences of Vytautas. What did not the Crusaders made their own. During the civil war in 1390, the year the troops of Prince Jogaila took the castle in a tight 50-day siege. The castle was burned down. In the fire the fire was almost killed himself Vytautas and his family.

          Soon on the site of the Grand Duke Vytautas ruins built a new brick Gothic castle with five towers. Just a few years later, he stood first baptism of fire - storm of the Crusaders. The castle was built around the perimeter of the mountain, and its wall thickness of 2.5-3 m formed a wrong in terms of a triangle. The walls of unequal height, and had ended with teeth. On the walls of structures can only be judged by the preserved remains of brick and stone-boulder. Brick masonry walls used to align the rows of stone, in the towers - as a facing material. The peculiarity of brick-stamps are signs of masters, cut with a sharp instrument to the firing. The castle was five towers. Entry tower, square, located in the southeast corner of the fortress and was connected with the city of lifting a wooden bridge. The tallest tower, a circular cross section, has escaped from the XIII century. and was included in the system Vitovt new fortifications. By its nature, this tower was close to a military-type guard towers Vezha in Kamenetz. The towers have not survived to our time: some were dismantled during the construction of the palace Stefan Batory Foundation in the late XVI century. From other foundations and left side walls. In line the walls, facing the town, placed a new stone two-storey palace Vytautas with thick walls. The building is largely preserved to this day. Separated from the town of Castle 50-meter dry moat.

        In 1445godu Grand Duke of Lithuania Casimir IV Jagiellonian received here of the Polish ambassador, offered him the crown, and in 1492, died in the castle. It is very often stopped Stefan Batory, who did the actual from Grodno capital of the Commonwealth. In the years 1576-1586 Upper Castle became the residence of King Stefan Batory Foundation and the King's initiative was rebuilt by the Italian architect Scotto almost over. From the fortress built by Vytautas, leaving only the walls and some towers. In planning a two-story palace of its apparent adaptation to the defense: no ceremonial hall and staircase, the walls were more thick. Small in size room and several rooms created an asymmetrical composition, and the closed plan. Interior decoration of the ground floor was made of brick: the royal rooms on the second floor finished polished plaster, decorated with tiles and carvings. The floor was paved with marble and ceramic tiles. The tower housed the room, and above it - a hall with stucco. Impressive and elegant bedroom, painted gray and gold paint ....
        The castle has become a richly decorated palace.

         In 1579 there was a meeting of the Senate, which discussed the contribution of the Commonwealth in the Livonian War. Batory carried himself in a castle a long time. The city he loved so much, that often dropped in here, including hunting. There are legends that the king had found here the lady of his heart - the daughter of a forester, who bore him a son. But this, of course, did not know Stephen's wife Queen Anne. The last time King arrived in Grodno in September 1586. September 6, 1586 King of Poland once again arrived in Grodno, as it turned out, forever. On Sunday, December 7, he was, as usual, went to church - Faro Vytautas (200 meters from the castle), but there fell ill. Five days later, at the residence he was even worse. Stefan Batory opened all the windows to breathe easier, but the heart has stopped. To find out the cause of sudden death in Grodno made the first in Eastern Europe, anatomical dissection, but it does not give an exact answer. Interestingly, one and a half years before his death Stefan Batory in his will asked that he be buried in the city across the river. However, breaking the will of the king, he was buried in Krakow, where all Polish monarchs are buried.

         The fate of the old castle has been linked to numerous modifications. In 1655 the castle was completely destroyed by Russian troops during the Russian-Polish war of 1654-1667. Lithuania has built his chancellor and mayor of Grodno Krzysztof Zygmunt Pats. Then the windows lost their borders, and have been increased.

         Since 1678 the castle passed the Diet of Poland third.

        During the Northern War of 1700-1721 the castle was destroyed by the Swedes. A fire in 1735 virtually destroyed what was left of the castle, and he never regained its former importance. In the middle of the XVIII century, was built near New Castle, and the old no longer perform its function. After the partition of Poland and Grodno accession to the Russian Empire in the XIX century it was rebuilt in the royal barracks, hotels, casinos and an officer's military library. Superstructure of the third floor, made in the XIX century, completely changed his appearance.
       To have survived the palace, fragments of defensive walls, the ruins of the Lower and Upper Church, the prince's quarters, the bridge and the Site of ancient castle. Castle with the city connects the stone arch bridge built to replace the wooden in the second half of XVII century.

        In 1925, the former royal palace opened on historical and archaeological museum. At present the castle is located the main exhibition of Grodno Museum of History and Archeology
         The castle has long needed restoration, but the experts did not immediately identified, it should be. The project of reconstruction of the castle, as a result it takes the form, which had at Stefan Batory. Restore the Palace Stefan Batory can with reasonable accuracy, as preserved engraved picture of the building. Work is expected to begin in 2012.

Novogrudok Castle History

Novogrudok settlement emerged at the end of X century. The city and the castle is located on one of the highest points of Belarus - 323 meters above sea level. At Castle Hill there was a fortress on the other the high hills - Posad.

Townsmen inhabitants were engaged in metal working, working with iron, bronze, non-ferrous metals, were made sickles, metalwork and carpentry tools, axes, spears, darts, scissors, fishing hooks. Novogrudok artisans worked with gold, with colored glass. Formed even quarter Novogrudok goldsmiths. They lived in a two-story houses, painted murals, with glazed windows - after 500 years of the windows in the palace of Peter I was even mica.

The first written mention of Novogorodke - Novgorodka refers to 1044, when the Grand Duke of Kiev Yaroslav the Wise, "went to Lithuania." Obviously it was then that originated from the tenements and city roundabout. To protect against possible attacks around the city was erected earthworks.Novogrudok Castle History.

In the XII century Novogrudok - one of the richest cities in Russia, Black - Upper Ponemanya. By goldsmithery and jewelry craft added pottery, spinning, weaving, tailoring, bone and stone-cutting business. Novogrudok had extensive trade ties, despite the absence of waterways - the city traded with Kiev with European countries, Baltic countries, Scandinavia, even with the Middle East and Byzantium. Among the many residents of the city charter knew.

Since the beginning of XI century to the reign of Mindaugas Novorudka stood on the walls, wooden walls, renewed several times. The first mention of Mindaugas - creator of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, refers to 1219. By that time, there Novogrudok fiefdoms. Around 1238 there Izyaslav rules.

It is not known how Mindovg Novogrudok became the prince, perhaps, he was invited to rule novogrudtsami might captured the city, maybe he got his inheritance from his father - Prince Ringolda.

Since the 1240s Mindovg reigned in Novogrudok, gradually subdued all the surrounding Novogrudok principality.

PG Chigrinov wrote: "Mindaugas troops entered the Pskov and Novgorod lands occupied even Torzhok. Alexander Nevsky eight times deduced in the squad and only with great effort and considerable loss was able to defend their possessions. "

Mindovg ever fought, and fought with all against all, make alliances and broke them, sometimes losing battle, but more often won. The first mention of Novogrudok in Hypatian chronicle in 1252, it was this year the city - the residence of Duke Mindaugas and the capital of all its lands. In 1253 Mindovg converted to Catholicism and was crowned in Novogrudok.

In 1250-1270, the Novogrudok principality - the arena of struggle of the Lithuanian and Galician-Volyn princes. Already in the years 1254-1260 belonged to the Roman Novogrudok Danilovich Galicia, then - the son of Mindaugas - Voishelk. It was then, and began to build Novogrudok castle.

In the second half of the XIII century on the Castle Hill was built powerful Gorodnya - oak log, and the first stone tower, measuring 12 by 12 meters, which closes the ring of the city.

In 1274 a joint army of Tatars and Galicia-Volyn prince Lev Danilovich destroyed and looted the town roundabout, but failed to take the castle.

In 1314 Novogrudok Castle tried to take the Crusaders, using kamnemety. Destroying, as always, everyone in the neighborhood, the Crusaders on the move to take the lock failed and began the siege. There were bloody battles. At this point, he went from Grodno equestrian team to help novogrudtsam. The detachment was apparently small, and the head of the squad David suddenly attacked a military camp, killing the guards. 1500 knights were captured horses, equipment, food, the whole convoy. A squad of David, and took all the food left by the Knights on the way back. With cross lifted the siege and went home. All their attempts to get food and feed, and severely suppressed Grodno novogrudtsami. After eating the last horse eating grass and roots, remnants of the Crusaders and a half months to get to their castles.

In 1341 the principality became a lot Novogrudok Voydata Keystutevicha in 1384 - his son George, then - Tovtivilla Keystutevicha. At the end of the XIII century Novogrudok owned Lithuanian Grand Duke Trayden. Since 1394 Novogrudok - Centre of the Lithuanian grand domain. That same year, the Crusaders again unsuccessfully stormed the castle Novogrudok. At the end of the XIV century stone tower was badly damaged, she had built a new, brick tower, called the Shield, it had five floors of the total height of 25 meters. Wall thickness was about 3 meters, the walls were many loopholes in the castle began intense stone construction. Were built three stone towers - Kostyolna Posadnaya, Small Gate and the wall between them. The length of the walls between the towers was 30, 80 and 70 meters. The fourth wall was made of wood for a long time. The steepness of the 27-meter high mountain slope was 60 degrees. In the XIV century the castle was built a stone church in the form of single-turret stone buildings - Church of St. Michael. Before the partition of Poland there were the highest appeal court session of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania - the Tribunal.Castle

Near the church stood a two-storey stone palace 8 of 8 meters, which lasted until the middle of the XVII century.

At the beginning of the XV century, only to hit the eastern slope of the springs. Above them novogrudtsy Kolodezhnuyu put a tower, a square at the base 8 of 8 meters. Castle .From Kolodezhnoy tower was the castle walls two meters thick. Inside the wall was a secret passage to the water 1 m wide, with a vaulted ceiling.

In 1505 the Tatars and Turkish Janissaries tried to take Novogrudok Castle, but failed.

In Novogrudok in 1255, 1274, 1278's attacked the Mongol-Tatars in 1314, 1321, 1341, 1390, 1394 years of the Crusaders, at the beginning of the XVI century - the Crimean Tatars. Novogrudok castle was never taken. Sam Novogrudok to 1323 was the capital of the Duchy of Lithuania (since 1323, Vilnius). In the city the three diets were the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Since 1415 Novogrudok - rezidendiya Metropolitan Grand Duchy of Lithuania, with 1596 - the residence of the Uniate metropolitan of the Commonwealth.

In 1507 the Grand Duchy of Lithuania introduced a new administrative-territorial division. In January 1507 it was established Novogrudok province, which was divided into three of the district - County: Volkovysk, Novogrudok, Slonim. In Navahradak county until 1791 included the Duchy of Slutsk. This system lasted from 1507 to 1940.

In 1511 Novogrudok received Magdeburg rights. When the churches were set up schools in the early XVI century a theater. In addition to the three diets Grand Duchy of Lithuania were held here seymiki - Meeting the local gentry, and the clerk sat castle courts.

At the beginning of the XVI century on the foundations of four-under 14 on 14 meters was built watch tower. Between her and the Little Brahma built pyatidesyatimetrovuyu wall thickness of 2 meters. Novogrudok castle became completely stone, which, however, did not save him from the terrible wars of the XVII and early XVIII century. Another tower was built by the city. Strengthening the fortifications of the city combined with a lock, creating a lower zone defense - "Forburga."

Novogrudok Castle in the XVI century, had seven towers connected by walls and further strengthen from the north - a great earthen rampart and defensive ditch tridtsatimetrovoy width and a depth of 4 meters. On the shaft of the high walls were located.

In 1535 the Moscow governor unsuccessfully stormed the castle Novogrudok. In the XVI - XVIII centuries in Novogrudok a resident population of 2-3 thousand people.

MA Tkachev wrote in "Castles of Belarus," 1987: "The first half of the XVI century for the city was calm. This, however, had a negative impact on the state of the castle, behind which the royal power ceased to attend. Belarus was in the depths, far from the troubled east porubezhe, Novogrudok castle gradually ustratil its strategic importance, with all the inevitable consequences in such cases: he started to collapse, keep up in arms. "

During the "blood flood" (War 1654-1667), in September 1655 after a siege took Novogrudok army of Prince AN Trubetskoy and the Ukrainian Cossacks II Zolotarenko. The castle was badly damaged, while the city burned. The castle was partially restored, but back in 1660 was taken by Moscow troops of Prince Ivan Khovanskii. Wage garrison did not receive a fee for service, he opened the gates of the fortress.

Four towers were destroyed, preserved beetle, Kostyolna patrol. The castle was destroyed, fell into decay.

Entering the Great Northern War in 1706, the Swedes captured the town and castle, all looted and blew up all the fortifications.

Since 1795, Novogrudok in the Russian Empire, in the county town of Slonim, in 1797 - in Lithuania, in 1801 - in Grodno, in 1843 - in the Minsk province. Histor

The childhood of the great poet Adam Mickiewicz was in Novogrudok, after Navahrudak school in 1815 he enrolled at the University of Vilnius.

During the XIX century Navahradak - small town, where about 4,000 residents, 15 stone, and 400 wooden houses. At the beginning of the XX century took place every year in the city for six fairs. In 1897 in Novogrudok lived about 8,000 inhabitants History

Since September 1915 Novogrudok was occupied by German troops, which in April 1919 were replaced by Polish troops. In July 1920 the Red Army entered the Novogrudok, but it drove the Poles in October.

In the years 1921-1939, Novogrudok part of Poland, the center of province and district.

Since 1939 Novogrudok - part of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic, in 1940 the district center.

From July 1941 to July 6, 1944 Novogrudok was occupied by the Nazis during the occupation in the area who killed about 30,000 people.

Since 1954 Novogrudok - the regional center of Grodno region.

In 1959 the population of Novogrudok - 12 000 inhabitants in 1970 - 20 000 inhabitants at the beginning of the XXI Century - 30 000 inhabitants.

In Novogrudok are 5 museums, including the house-museum of Adam Mickiewicz. Novogrudok Castle History

In the spirit of Novogrudok survived thousands of years of history, there are many architectural monuments - the ruins of the castle XIII-XVI centuries, Boris and Gleb Church XVI century Farny Church XIV-XV centuries, Nicholas' Church of the XIX century, the Dominican church of St. Michael's of the XII century, the Franciscan Monastery of residential building of the XII century, trade rows of houses and XVIII-XIX centuries, the mountain Mindaugas, Barrow Mickiewicz.

The ruins of the castle.

The castle was the seat unit, and later Lithuanian Grand Dukes. Located on the high hills. Novogrudok area is often referred to as "the Belarusian Switzerland."

To have survived the ruins of the towers 'donjon' Shield and Tower Kostelní.

St. Boris and Gleb Church.

Built as a temple, adapted to the defense at the expense of a large Orthodox magnate of the Grand Hetman of Lithuania Constantine of Ostrog. Built in two architectural styles - Gothic and Renaissance.

In the first half of the XVII century the temple was reconstructed, and it's got a different look.

Within the walls of the church is the miraculous icon of Our Lady Navahrudak.

Farny Church of the Transfiguration.

According to legend, founded in 1395 Vitovt. At first was a wooden one. Catholic church was erected in 1712-1723 to include the old one. In the church in 1799, baptized by Adam Mickiewicz. The temple is a bas-relief in 1643 in memory of the Novogrudok knights, who died at Khotin in 1621 in a battle with the Turks.

St. Nicholas Cathedral.

Built in 1780 as the church of St. Anthony's Franciscan Monastery. In 1831 on the orders of the Russian government was handed over to the Orthodox Church and rebuilt the church of St. Nicholas.

Church of St. Michael the Archangel.

Built in 1624 as the Church of the Dominican monastery.

A hundred years later rebuilt in 1751 and 1831 was on fire.

Double closed - in 1858 and after World War II.

In the 1990s, restored in the church service going.

In the main altar - Syatogo icon of Archangel Michael, patron saint of Novogrudok.

The house-museum of Adam Mickiewicz.

The museum is built on the foundation of the estate Senkevich.

For the first time the museum was opened in 1938, then - in 1955.

Renovated in 1989. In the courtyard of the museum renovated outbuilding, garden furniture, a well manor Mickiewicz.

Mountain Mindaugas. Novogrudok Castle History

Covered with legends, one of which it is buried Prince Mindovg (1195-1260) - founder of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Mound of Immortality in honor of Adam Mickiewicz.

Poured admirers of the poet in the years 1924-1931 on Little Castle - where started Novogrudok roundabout city. This settled the goldsmith.

Not far from Lake Litovka Novogrudok is celebrated by Adam Mickiewicz's poem "Grazyna".

In the town there is Vselyub church of St. Casimir's construction of the XV century - the oldest stone Catholic church in Belarus.

In 1581 near Novogrudok Lyubchansky was built the castle - the last monument of the traditional castle construction in Belarus. The castle was surrounded by a moat of 30 meters and a depth of 10 meters. At Castle Hill wooden palace was replaced by a stone. From the owner Liubcha Jan Guts at the beginning of the XVI century the castle passed to the Radziwill. Lyubchanskaya printing house was destroyed in the wars of the mid-XVII century, has published over 100 books, including the first edition of Belarus Mikhail Stryjkovsky - "Genealogy, or a short description of the historical acts of Lithuanian Grand Dukes."

Under Novogrudok is Negnevichi estate, which in 1428 the Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas gave his wife Yuliana Golshanskaya. In XV century the manor passed to the Radziwill.

In the town of Shchorsa from XV century belonged to magnates Hreptovicham in 1770-1776, was built a stone palace of Italian and French architects, who became the center of the manor and park complex. The palace was surrounded by a large landscaped park with a system of artificial lakes. Partially Shchorsa were destroyed in the First World War.

Not far from Novogrudok - glorified A. Mickiewicz Svityaz Lake.

Mir Castle Architecture

Castle in the town of Grodno world built on the right bank of the rivulet laywomen. The plan, he recalled a few wry quadrilateral. At each corner, speaking for the perimeter wall, towers strong tower. Fifth - entry - Gate is located in the center of the western wall, facing the city. In the courtyard stands a three-story palace, attached to the northern and eastern walls of the castle.

Mir Castle was built in 1506-1510 years. previously stood on the site is dependent on the Lord's Court feudal Mirschiny population, as well as other possessions Brest mayor, Court Marshal of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Prince George Ilyinich. For the construction of the castle were built brick factories ("tsagelni") in the villages and Propashi Birbashi. Lime is delivered from the overthrow, that about Columns. In one place were brought hundreds of cubic meters of field stone, hewing it, sorted by size and color are the same peasant hands.

Rod Ilyinich Mir Castle belonged to him from 1568 went on to Radzivills Nesvizh line. Since the end of the XVIII century. was at the graphs and the princes of Hohenlohe, Berlenburgov, Wittgenstein, and the second half of XIX century. and up to 1939 - the princes Svyatopolk-Mirski.

The castle was badly damaged in 1655 during the Russian-Polish war. During the Northern War (1705), it was stormed and burned by Swedes. In 1794 during the uprising T. Kosciuszko Castle stormed the royal troops. Under its walls, 9-14 July 1812 there were fierce battles between the rear guard of the 2nd Russian army of Bagration - General Platov cavalry and the French cavalry of Marshal Davout. During the fighting were destroyed and burned down the palace, a tower, damaged outer bastion fortifications. Re-new battle under the walls of the castle was 11.10 in November 1812 between the army and the French Admiral Chichagov.

Only in 1870 on the four towers (except for the blasted North-East) built a hipped roof. Later the palace was restored. At the end of the XIX century. Mir Castle Architecture, south of the castle had dug a large pond, the failure of this bastion fortifications.

Mir Castle Complex today and surprises with its architectural harmony and unity with nature, rationality and reasonableness of the defense structures, simplicity and conciseness of forms.

All the towers of the castle made the same: four-sided base and eight-sided tapering top. The architectural treatment of facades based on the alternation of different shapes and sizes of decorative niches, rods, and ornamental belts. This technique has been widely distributed both in civil and in the cult of Belarusian architecture of XVI century.

Around the perimeter wall at a height of about 8 m from the ground is an ornamental belt width of about 70 cm of the six rows of brick. The upper and lower ranks - bricks laid at an angle in the form of traditional curb. Between them is a strip of recessed masonry. Whitewashed with lime, this belt impressively read by a red brick wall background, as well as other ornamental belt, which was from its very top.

All the towers of the castle of Mir structurally and stylistically close to each other at the same time each of them has its individual architectural appearance. The artistic excellence of the facade of the castle, and especially emphasizes the reasonableness of the fusion zone of ornamental towers. They, in turn, continue to organically identical in design and engineering performance belt on the fence wall and semicircular niches. Thanks to all the elements of the castle are linked into a coherent architectural composition, and their elegance and grandeur as it might push the walls in the background, creating a complete image of a unique structure that has no analogues in the neighboring lands of the Baltic states, Poland and Russia.

Towers placed in such a way that was convenient to flanking fire along the walls and pryasel hit the target on the approaches to them. Most of the loopholes intended to be fired from guns. All towers designed as independent units of defense: the case of an enemy breakthrough into the yard and the assault from the outside of them could carry a circular firing. Each tower had 5 tiers fights with a lot of loopholes and complex system of internal transitions. Culminated in the tower battlements - machicolations, allows you to protect the immediate approaches to the walls. Through them, the enemy could throw stones, grenades, pouring boiling water or resin.

Of all the corner towers of XVI century. almost completely preserved southwest, which allows to study the system of planning and organization of the fight on all floors. At the bottom it is somewhat skewed square 10x10 m 23 m height of the tower rests on a powerful facility for at least a powerful foundation with a depth of 4 m laying Difficult it is of huge boulders up to 1.5 meters, well adjusted to each other, associated with lime solution.

Inside the tower was divided into five tiers, and placed in the basement cellar for the storage of military ammunition. The first floor housed the seven cannon embrasures, which flanked the fire castle gates, western and southern walls and were front the fire. On the second floor was a narrow and steep stone staircase. It housed six guns. In the XX century. some loopholes rastesali did the large windows. The overlap of the second floor vaulted, and the other three - on the beams. On the upper floors were loopholes, designed to fire both of cannon, and from handguns.

At the level of the fourth floor of the tower walls move in the "octagon". At the top of the tower walls in some places preserved poluzalozhennye brick "Vary the window." The remaining towers are different from the south-west dimensions of reason, the volume of space and some details. Same internal layout, three-dimensional solution, the appointment of the premises and saturation firing means they are all very similar.

Of all the towers of the Mir Castle home - entry - in form, soft sculpture and ornamentation of the facades of the most interesting, bright and perfect. Shestiyarusnoe structure powerfully ascended to the 25-meter height, resting on a solid foundation (12x12 m). A powerful tower is decorated with a giant ornamental bands and decorative niches of various sizes and shapes, accumulating a traditional ornamentation techniques and tools of local stone architecture. Here and drevneslavyan-sky curb and arkaturnye friezes (valances), and an inquisitive mind born of the local "doylidov 'round, three-part with hanging weights, semicircular, arched, rectangular and other niches. The thickness of the first floor of the tower cuts a single passage in a castle with two oak gates (one at the entrance and the other at the exit). Gating the cloth flaps locked thick oak beams, which were made in the side walls of the special socket (30x30 cm). In addition, shots on target further defended the special lattice (Gers) from forged and sharpened iron bars from the bottom. She fell from the second floor through a special aperture size of 2.8 X0, 4 m in case of danger, before the guard had time to close the gate, with lightning speed Hers' fell from the top, cutting off the entrance to the castle.

At the bottom of the portal of the tower housed a prison - the basement, are also protected by guards. To the left of the gate on the west wall, there were loopholes mounted combat (machicolations).

According to the inventory of the castle in 1688, in the portal tower were three iron cannon. In the XVIII and XIX centuries. on the second floor housed a chapel, and on the wall facing the courtyard of the castle, was a clock. Started from the bottom and was in the thick walls of stone stairs. She reached the fourth floor, opening and access to each tier of the battle. The second and third floors with vaulted ceilings were, respectively, 6 and 7 of the loopholes for firing muskets and cannons. The remaining floors of his plan are similar: to have overlapping beams and 8 cannon embrasures. Tower was completed belt "Carlsbad windows" that existed prior to the restructuring and renovation of the tower in the second half of XIX century.

Attaching great importance to the defense of the only entrance to the castle and taking into account the increasing power of artillery, the owners of the castle after a while decided to further strengthen the protection of the gate. To this end, the central tower built a horseshoe-shaped wall "predbramya" (Barbican) with a thickness of 1.25 meters on her cut through the center of one of two doorways of the cloth, and lockable wooden beam ("obstruction"). The top of the wall ended in teeth and loopholes. Consequently, it also had a military gallery - a platform for shooters. Inside the Barbican dug a 2-meter deep pit, which closed a special drawbridge. Mir Castle Architecture had spadeform length of about 9.75 m and a width of 9.5 m falling, the bridge lay on the ledge a special reference to the foundation of the Barbican, playing the role of flooring for travel to the castle. From below the bridge was bound with iron bands and spikes. Being raised, it is entirely closed the main entrance gating. The dimensions of the bridge suggests that the height of the wall "predbramya" of at least 10 m existed Barbican until the end of the XIX century. Firepower Mir castle towers and walls are organically combined. Characteristically, the walls were three tiers of combat. The lower zone of the four walls cut through the gun slits in a battle plantar spacious chambers - PECHUROV. This tier of the fire was very powerful: in the north wall had nine loopholes in the east - 9, in the south - 8 and in the west - 5.

Middle tier in the middle of the battlefield was the walls, a height of approximately 8 m above the ground. He had the look of the corridor gallery height of just over 2 meters with a semicircular arch. Both walls of the gallery were numerous rifle loopholes that allowed the fire to not only outside, but inside the castle courtyard. Upper level - battle ground, placed at the top of the wall. She covered the parapets with loopholes.

At the beginning of the XVII century. important additional elements of defense became the Mir Castle bastion fortifications, pour out of clay, coarse sand and earth. This construction, which took the form of a powerful quad 170H150 size m, as it has become the first line of defense.

Construction of the castle was carried out in several stages. In the first decade of the XVI century. were built walls and towers, and the south-western section of the yard one-story brick dwelling occupied the building. The second phase accounted for 20 to 30 years of the XVI century., When the southern and eastern walls, built a one-story building with an extensive cellar. The new building has taken a significant area of ​​the courtyard.

In the third construction phase (second half of the XVI century. - The first half of XVII.) Over a one-story housing built two more floors. The external walls of the palace were castle walls - north and east. They walled part of the loopholes, but on the second and third floors have large windows. Inside the building has also undergone renovation. According to some data, in the late XVI - early XVII century., Apparently, also built a horseshoe-shaped wall "predbramya." Imagine Mir Castle at the time allow inventories. According to information from one of them in 1688, the Pidzamche surrounded by a rampart, placed a variety of outbuildings - "flocking to vozovney and notation, all roofed with shingles," and "a small kitchen garden." Near the gate stood a lodge ("kordygarda"), where there were furnace "of white kafli, bred up, three benches, a table and a glass window." In the castle were the prince's stables with hay harvested for future use, and oats, distillery, bathroom, utility vaults. High-porch "with railings and uskhodkami Malevannaya" paved the way to the numerous rooms and halls of the palace. Mir Castle Architecture.Everything was sparkling clean and the wealth on which the sun looked in amazement, looking here through the stained glass windows, reduction of tin and wooden frame work of astonishing: the parquet floor, high furnace, built of multicolored kafli, forged brass hanging candlesticks, the famous carpets karelitskie - "Tapestry", expensive weapons on the walls.

Mir Castle XVII-XVIII centuries. - It is a magnificent palace and castle complex, which features a surprisingly well combined military fortification,Architecture and softness, opulence and grandeur of the palace buildings. The history of the castle is closely linked with the history of the world populations. According to some reports, it is first mentioned in 1395, when the Crusaders led by the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order Konrad von Yungingemom without taking Novogrudok, Lida, and attacked the world and devastated them. In 1434 Grand Duke of Lithuania Sigismund gave Keystutovich World boyar Gedygoldovichu Senka, which he joined in 1490 to the genus Ilyinich princes, natives of Mogilev.

In the XVI century. Fortifications of the World has Radziwill were in the form of the earthworks with wooden "parkanom" and four wooden entrance Gate, later replaced by stone. One of the local masons - "Muliar Zaborovsky Martin" in 1594 "were set chrism" of peace. City of the gate, opening out of town travel to the four sides have had their own names: Wilensky, The exchange, a castle, and Slonim. The latter is sometimes in the documents of XVII century. also called the "Gate Ayutsevichskaya." Before the shaft was a dry moat. Each portal tower had a drawbridge. In late August - early September 1655 the city was taken by world army royal governor Alexander Trubetskoy and Ukrainian colonel Ivan Zolotarenko. Repeatedly hit the city in late 1655, when he was besieged by the Swedes. The town had militia townspeople, divided into hundreds.

Mir Castle in service in their 60-80s of XVII century. gakovnitsy were "in a simple siege", muskets, wick osazhennye samopaly, peaks, poleaxes, mace, "chipped in iron," and the gun. All works of repair and inspection of the city's fortifications led the local mayor. In the 80 years of the XVII century., After a devastating Russian-Polish war in the world are working two teams of builders, whose names are known. It's carpenters - "Master teslyarsky Garuta, Tesla Mikolaj, Yuri, Chursky, Lavryn Stepura, Dudarchik and masons - Muliar - Senior Master Martin, the master of Khabar, Stanislav, Petroc and assistants Dudka, Fedor, Gorbach, Sasha." As in the castle, the city tower wings different roofing materials: shingles, wooden shingles ("dahovkoy") muravlenoy "royal dahovkoy", imported from Karpov on Luke, "Khatna dahovkoy" and tin ("buckle") in the form of copper and zinc sheets. Fortifications in the world, apparently, in the XVIII century. looked like a bastion fortification. It lasted until the end of the XVIII century. And Wilensky Gate last mentioned in 1794, then strengthening sryli. Until now, only survived the Mir Castle Complex. Mir Castle was once a powerful military structure, which have been used almost all the known elements of the medieval fortifications of the castle and the local traditions of architecture. Mir Castle Architecture built his undoubtedly talented architect-builder. Most likely it was a folk artist, who had a rich artistic taste and a sense of proportion, was well acquainted with the architecture of the neighboring nations. Not having good tools, he could not make a precise breakdown of how plans and facades. But this did not prevent a first-rate architect for the time of military fortifications, to decorate his stern appearance beautiful harmony of colors and a variety of architectural details. Now the big castle restoration work underway.
Mir Castle Architecture

Mir Castle History

If you pick up a compass and a map of the world circle the circle of Europe, then its center is on the territory of the Republic of Belarus - somewhere between Minsk and Grodno. More precisely, the center of the circle falls on the town by the name Mir. It is said that the notorious geographical point is just under the walls of the local castle.

The outlines of an ancient castle can be seen from afar: the majestic towers, tall walls, three-story palace - all are fraught with echoes of the past. According to legend, Mir Castle, built by the mysterious knights existed since time immemorial. Revision of historians is more prosaic: they reportedly Castle, later known as "the brightest flower of medieval", built by order of the mayor of Brest - the court marshal of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Yuri Ilyinich - unknown local artist.

The question arises: In what year was this momentous event? Trying to find the most plausible answer, experts have not agreed. Some still argue that the construction of the Mir Castle began in 1506, others - in the 1495-1500 years., And others - in the 1522-1526 years.

However, the study of the Lithuanian Metrica evidence in favor of the latest version of researchers focusing on the first mention of the Mir Castle (1527th year) associated with a letter on the division of ownership between the sons of George Ilyinich. Especially because there is an impressive confirmation of the written loan taken Ilyinich father just after 1522. And this despite the fact that by the time Yuri Ilyinich Pan was rich enough and had the presence of more than 40 estates, that is, a total of about 2,000 yards (can you imagine how impressive was the amount of taxes collected!).

In addition, some features of the architecture of the Mir Castle indicate that he was not previously incorporated in 1510. The two towers, the south-western and south-east, close to the inner spiral staircases are characteristic arches - this type appeared in Central Europe until the end of the XV century, and in the Baltic countries (for example, Bernardine church in Vilnius) at the beginning of the XVI century . The same can be said about the use of a number of decorative elements on the facades.

Clarify the time of construction helps, and one more thing. In the 1524th year, not far from Vaukavysk was founded the Church of St. Michael, plastic architectural details which hardly differs from the Mir Castle. The reason for such a striking resemblance, in the end we found out: it turns out, the founder of the church was married to the niece of George Ilyinich, so that in 1522 the year of family property cases linked set.

To this day the debate continues, and the appointment of Mir Castle. Full of all sorts of decorative details and elements of the Gothic, built in the quiet time and almost on the plain, he could hardly be used in a purely defensive purposes. Of course, this does not mean that the creators of the Mir Castle exclude the idea of ​​protecting their possessions, because the fact of construction at all tiers and at the foot of the palace battlements of various sizes, involving the use of firearms, is hardly accidental. Especially when you consider that the western and southern walls of the gallery battle ended with loopholes for firing bows and crossbows, and inclined slits-slits allow the resin to pour on the heads of the attacking opponents, throwing stones at them or just shoot.

Intriguingly, however, that the western towers are too close to each other that would have to create a lot of inconvenience in monitoring the situation around, and even more so during the shelling. In addition to the merits in defense of the proposed multi-storey towers and high walls, over the years became more and more questionable due to the rapid development of firearms. In other words, "the brightest flower of medieval" was more of a "castle in the game" rather than locking in the usual sense of the word.

Decoration of towers and walls is modest - his architectural drawing is made of the same type, though different in magnitude elements, niches, arches and other ornaments of medieval language often incomprehensible, so the purpose of various components often can only guess. For example, it is unclear what caused the appearance of the south wall of the castle rock a sheep. The desire to acquire a magical talisman, or perhaps read "Holy Lamb"? So the assumption that the Jury decided to build Ilyinich Mir Castle in order to use it to get high rank, or simply to perpetuate itself in the light of the above do not seem quite so improbable.

Ilyinich ... Sr. died in the 1522nd year and not being able to realize its ambitious pants - at least in full, since the castle was left unfinished. He pinned hopes on the sons, who had begun to continue his business? Apparently, yes, but fate had a different way.

First, he died one of the four sons of George Nicholas Ilyinich that, as expected, led to a feud between the remaining candidates for the succession. "The truce" between the brothers was achieved only through the intervention of the Grand Duke and the King Zigimont. However, in 1531 the year of the Mir Castle once again left without master - young and childless, Stanislav Ilyinich wife was poisoned by his own servants during one of his tricks. The other two brothers were also destined to a short life ...

As the only grandson of the founder of the Mir Castle - George, he was left an orphan at age eight and, accordingly, the owner of all property Ilinich, was taken into custody by Nicholas Radziwill, "Black" and most of his life with his Nesvizh yard.

After the death of Nicholas in the 1565th year, the young Yuri Ilyinich, who had no wife, no children, became the guardian of the descendants of Radziwill's "Black", and soon, sensing something was wrong, has issued a testament to the eldest son of Nicholas Krystof ("Orphan") and in 1569 - the year he died. Thus Secular County, including the castle, passed into the possession of Radziwill.

When Radziwill "Orphan" Mir Castle has undergone some changes. Now the defense function has been assigned to the new and reworked the old fighting gallery, earthen ramparts with bastions at the corners, and moats.

The very same castle being completed in accordance with the then fashion along the northern and eastern walls - a three-story palace, along the south and west - single-storey utility rooms, on the second floor of the tower over the gate there was a chapel of St. Christopher - the third watch. In the same palace on the first floor of the stored food supplies, weapons, etc., and the second was occupied by the county administration of Mir, and the third was intended for the prince.

Decorative image of the castle changed, too: a stone gave way to brick, and the leading role was given to the thread. From the Italian Renaissance also borrowed the rhythm of alternating windows and doors, staircases and rooms at the same height floor. Have not been forgotten, and gothic elements, and another thing, that the simple form, a huge palace windows were in the inside of the shaft in the defense, while balconies of luxury decor, lamps, art galleries - in the courtyard. In fact, Mir Castle has become the suburban villa, which captured the image of Nicholas "Orphan" even during his trip to Italy.

It is clear that not everyone in the history of the Mir Castle was not as rosy. It suffices to mention the long-term Swedish siege in 1655 the first year, the Great Northern War, in which the Swedes in the 1705th again, took the castle by storm, and burned everything so carefully restored several decades earlier, and the storming of the castle armies of Alexander Suvorov. However, the most significant challenge to the Mir Castle was the War of 1812, when, in July and November, between the Russian and French troops of fierce fighting. And it was blown up by the north-east tower, where the gunpowder warehouse burned down the palace, and destroyed fortifications.

After World War II in 1812 is no more or less significant events in the Mir Castle and the surrounding area did not occur. But what's interesting: the more he is destroyed, overgrown with grass and trees, the more attracted admirers of antiquity. Legends of old Mir Castle and its inhabitants the dozens, particularly famous in this sense, one of the Radziwill - Pan Kohanek (from the Polish word kochanek - lover, beloved). What did he supposedly did not commit; and refuge from pirates in a nutshell, and riding in the summer of salt on the Bose, drawn by bears, and was famous for its many romantic adventures, and once even got a lover from among the ... Sirens!

Radziwill castle owned right up to the end of the XVIII century, and later it belonged to the Counts and Princes of Hohenlohe, Berlenburgam, Wittgenstein, and in 1891 the year it became the property of princes Svyatopolk-Mirski (common name and the name of the estate - no more than a coincidence), which was beginning of the formation of a new palace and park ensemble. His compositional center was a two-storey palace, built around a single axis with a lock on the opposite side of the estate - about a former farm, on-site gardens. The front part of the ensemble was allowed in the classical forms. To this day remained a side wing and a large raised circle with lime trees, which are two maple alley entrance.

The landscaping of the park located between the castle and the palace and was built on the principle of alternation of wood and open glades groups. The main structural elements of the landscape and the art was a large pond with an island, arranged in the 1896-1898 years. in place of five ponds in the floodplain of the stream and cut down the garden. It was he who identified the main walking route that led from the main entrance to the castle along the pond, then to the west dam and pine alley deduced through the bridge back to the palace. In 1904, the year of the composition of the park was included a chapel and burial vault of princes Svyatopolk-Mirski - the original building with a bell in the tower with a colorful mosaic panels on the main facade, designed by St. Petersburg academician R. Marfeld architecture. Next to the cartouche panels fastened to the arms of the four oldest cities in Russia (Kiev, Novgorod, Pskov, Moscow), designed to emphasize the antiquity of the princely family Sviatopolk-Mirski.

After a fire in the 1914th year, the palace was not restored, and the last of the princes Svyatopolk-Mirski lived in an old castle until 1939. During World War II at the castle throughout the year there was a ghetto, and later they began to meet people whom the war has deprived the roof over your head. Many refugees have lived here and after the war - the last resident left the Mir Castle in the early 60s.

For further use of the castle spoke a variety of proposals, from the opening of this House creativity of architects, artists, and composers to the center for servicing of foreign tourists. In the end, June 25, 1983, in the south wall of Mir was solemnly laid a brick with a start date of restoration, and ten years later the grand opening of the first exposure to the south-west tower. Restoration work continues to this day.